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Monday, January 2nd, 2012

Subject:History of monasticism
Posted by:vonjunzt.
Time:9:53 pm.
Can anyone recommend a good history of monasticism?

Ideally, I'd like to see a general, well-researched history that addresses monasticism in both the Eastern and Western Churches.

I realize such a thing might not exist, however, so if you know good histories of particular Orders, or focussing on the Roman Catholic or the Orthodox Churches, I would appreciate hearing about them.
Comments: Add Your Own.

Thursday, October 27th, 2011

Subject:Hebrews as Strict Record-Keepers?
Posted by:aurora_nebulosa.
Time:3:21 am.
It has been noted for many-a-century that the Hebrews were quite strict record-keepers.

However...

Compare Genesis 10:3:...
"The sons of Gomer were Ashkenaz, *Riphath and Togarma."

with 1 Chronicles 1:6 (NAS):
"The sons of Gomer were Ashkenaz, *Diphath and Togarma."

The above translations of these passages reflect the majority of Hebrew manuscripts, though some Hebrew manuscripts as well as LXX and the Vulgate have "" for 1 Chron 1:6..

So...

How did the Hebrews, if they were such good record-keepers, reconcile this difference?

Is it not generally the case that, if something occurs in the majority of manuscripts, it's generally reliable? Or, are there cases where this has proved not to be true?

If it can't e reconciled, what do we as believers do with this difference?
Comments: Read 6 orAdd Your Own.

Tuesday, October 11th, 2011

Subject:Men and Women
Posted by:aurora_nebulosa.
Time:10:01 am.
Greetings.

As many of you know, the Greek words for "man" and "woman" can also be used to refer respectively to refer to "husband" and "wife".

Therefore, when relations between men and woman are being discussed in the New Testament, how are we to determine whether the relationship between the husband and the wife is specifically being referred to or whether the general relationship between men and women is being referred to? Many might respond to this question with one word: "context". However, one could argue that, in more cases than most might realize, "context" may not be as clear as one might like.

For instance, In 1 Timothy 2:12 ff., we read that Paul did not allow a "gunh" (the word for woman OR wife) to teach or have authority over an "anhr" ("man" or "husband"). If this applies to the relationship between ALL men and ALL women, then we are relatively clear, but if this applies specifically to husbands and wives, then we are faced with the question of how (if at all) this applies to single men and women.

Even though I cite this example specifically, I am interested in exploring the more general question with whch I began, i.e., how we are to determine when anhr/gunh mean generally "man/woman" and when they mean "husband/wife".

Actually, I am wondering whether there is any historical evidence for single (specifically) women having different standards from married women.

Thanks.
Comments: Add Your Own.

Tuesday, August 16th, 2011

Subject:Female Literacy
Posted by:aurora_nebulosa.
Time:4:24 pm.
I am wondering whether women of either the Jewish or Christian faiths were permitted and/or able to read during biblical times? Is there any explicit or indeed implicit evidence (preferably in the Scriptures but even extra-biblically) that Jewish and/or Christian women were permitted to/could read?
Comments: Read 1 orAdd Your Own.

Sunday, March 27th, 2011

Subject:Covering the Head
Posted by:aurora_nebulosa.
Time:2:04 pm.
Consider the following passage, 1 Corinthians 11:4-16 (NAS):

"Every man who has something on his head while praying or prophesying disgraces his head. But every woman who has her head uncovered while praying or prophesying disgraces her head, for she is one and the same as the woman whose head is shaved. For if a woman does not cover her head, let her also have her hair cut off; but if it is disgraceful for a woman to have her hair cut off or her head shaved, let her cover her head. For a man ought not to have his head covered, since he is the image and glory of God; but the woman is the glory of man. For man does not originate from woman, but woman from man; for indeed man was not created for the woman's sake, but woman for the man's sake. Therefore the woman ought to have a symbol of authority on her head, because of the angels. However, in the Lord, neither is woman independent of man, nor is man independent of woman. For as the woman originates from the man, so also the man has his birth through the woman; and all things originate from God. Judge for yourselves: is it proper for a woman to pray to God with her head uncovered? Does not even nature itself teach you that if a man has long hair, it is a dishonor to him, but if a woman has long hair, it is a glory to her? For her hair is given to her for a covering. But if one is inclined to be contentious, we have no other practice, nor have the churches of God."

So, is a woman's hair sufficient for her covering while prophesying or praying or should she, in addition, have a veil on her head? The phrase here translated "for a covering" is rendered in the Greek "anti peribolaiou". The preposition "anti" can carry with it the sense of "in the place of" while the word "peribolaion" can mean "a veil". This is then a good argument for the positive position. However, is this simply applying to "nature" (phusis) or does this apply to religious observance (or both)? Is "nature" here used as support for the instruction for a woman to have an additional covering or is Paul using this illustration to demonstrate that a woman's hair is sufficient covering? We might go back to the phrase that a woman having her hair uncovered is "one and the samne" ("hen gar estin kai to auto") as having it shorn or shaven; does Paul mean this in the most literal sense -- that if a woman has short or shaved hair, it is literally the same thing as if it were uncovered from a veil, because, in both cases, her head is considered uncovered? It is finally not at all unprofitable to consider the final line of this train of thought; "if one is inclined to be contentious...", and the rest of the line is problematic for me, as most translations make it out to mean that Paul/his associates have no other practice (besides what, exactly?), nor do the churches of God. The Greek, literally, seems to me to say, "we ourselves do not have such a kind of custom, nor do the churches of God". (Grk: "hemeis toiauten sunetheian ouk echomen, oude hai ekklesiai tou Theou.") Is Paul here saying that his associates as well as the churches do not have a custom of veiling? Or, is the opposite true; do they not have a practice of women being unveiled?

Apart from the Scriptures, is there any historical evidence as to what the early church practiced in this matter?
Comments: Add Your Own.

Monday, March 21st, 2011

Subject:Gender-neutral Occupations?
Posted by:aurora_nebulosa.
Time:1:27 pm.
I have recently been studying the occurrence (or lack thereof) of "gender-neutral" occupations as held in Scripture (both the NT and OT). I happened upon Acts 16:14 wherein Lydia is called a "seller of purple" (porphyropolis). This is evidently the feminine form of the term "porphyropoles". Since there are both masculine and feminine forms of the term in Greek, I am wondering if this occupation was performed by both males and females. If so, there is no indication given that the church disapproved of females being "sellers of purple" and so, this scripture, by implication, may lend (scriptural) support to (or at least not disapproval of) certain gender-neutral occupations.

My questions are: Is there any other evidence (historically?/scripturally?) for other (apparently) gender-neutral occupations among the Jews in the OT and/or among the Christians in the NT? Also, could the masculine form of "porphyropoles" be used also to refer to (only?) women who engaged in such an occupation?
Comments: Add Your Own.

Tuesday, June 16th, 2009

Subject:Random Quote
Posted by:slyfoot.
Time:8:25 am.
I came across this while browsing through the Merriam-Webster Dictionary of Allusions this morning:

~Children's Crusade
An unsuccessful attempt to take control of the Holy Land back from the Muslims waged in 1212 by thousands of French and German children. Their weapons were love and purity, but they perished in disaster.


That sounds like an old-style Hollywood movie poster for a movie about the Children's Crusade: Their weapons were love and purity, but they perished in disaster.

I can't get it out of my head now.
Comments: Read 2 orAdd Your Own.

Saturday, April 19th, 2008

Subject:Who's Who: Fra Angelico
Posted by:slyfoot.
Time:5:12 pm.
Today's Who's Who:
~Angelico, Fra

(1387--1455) Artist. Fra Angelico was born in Fiesole, Italy, and at the age of twenty-six he joined the Dominican Order. During the time of the Great Schism he was forced to move first to Foligno and then to Cortona. On his return, he painted the frescos in the Convent of St Marco in Florence and was responsible for the decoration of two chapels in the Vatican. His painting is notable for its luminous colour and his wonderful sense of composition. Besides his frescos, his well-known works include the Coronation of the Virgin, the Last Judgement and the Deposition from the Cross. He is thought to have been offered the Archbishopric of Florence, but to have refused it in order to dedicate himself to art.

J. Pope-Hennessy, Fra Angelico (1974).

Source: Who's Who in Christianity, Routledge
Comments: Add Your Own.

Friday, April 11th, 2008

Subject:Stop press!!
Posted by:efriden.
Time:12:26 pm.
http://www.fathersofthechurch.com/2008/03/27/stop-the-presses-six-new-augustine-sermons-found/
Comments: Read 1 orAdd Your Own.

Saturday, March 15th, 2008

Subject:Celtic spirituality
Posted by:efriden.
Time:3:27 am.
Thought this might be of interest:

http://thinkingfaith.org/articles/20080314_1.htm
Comments: Read 1 orAdd Your Own.

Saturday, February 9th, 2008

Subject:Who's Who: Angela of Foligno
Posted by:slyfoot.
Time:8:55 pm.
Today's Who's Who:

~Angela of Foligno

(c. 1248--1309) Mystic. Angela was born in Foligno, Italy, to a prominent family. After her husband and children died, she joined a Franciscan Tertiary Order and led a life of extreme austerity. She was the recipient of many visions which were recorded by her confessor, Brother Arnold. These were later circulated and published as the Liber Visionum et Instructionum. This has become a classic of Franciscan spirituality. Angela identified twenty steps of penitence through which she had passed before entering her mystical state -- the climax of which was the vision of herself in God.

Angela of Foligno, Liber Visionum et Instructionum, translated by M.G. Steegman (1909).

Source: Who's Who in Christianity, Routledge
Comments: Add Your Own.

Wednesday, January 30th, 2008

Subject:Who's Who: Angela Merici
Posted by:slyfoot.
Time:11:17 am.
Today's Who's Who:

~Angela Merici

(1474--1540) Saint and Order Founder. Angela was born in Desenzano, Italy. In her youth she joined a Franciscan Tertiary Order and devoted herself to a life of nursing and education. During a pilgrimage to the Holy Land in 1524, she suddenly and temporarily went blind. On her return to Italy, she founded a new women's religious order in Brescia. The order was named the Ursulines, after St URSULA. Angela wrote the Rule and was appointed Superior in 1537. The order was intended as a society of unmarried women, living in their own homes and dedicated to teaching. Over the course of time, community life and even enclosure have been introduced. None the less the Ursulines remain one of the most important teaching orders in the Roman Catholic Church.

P. Caraman, St Angela (1963) ; Sr Mary Monica, Angela Merici and her Teaching Idea (1927).

Source: Who's Who in Christianity, Routledge
Comments: Add Your Own.

Thursday, January 24th, 2008

Subject:Cult of the Holy Foreskin
Posted by:slyfoot.
Time:7:27 pm.
Courtesy of mlfoley:


Saint and Mystic Catherine of Siena had a vision wherein she received the Holy Foreskin from Christ - who cut it off of himself by his own hand - and gave it to her as a wedding ring to symbolise their marriage.

Saint Bridget of Sweden made claims that she received bits of Christ's foreskin on her tongue from an angel and that it tasted sweet, surpassing all other sweetness.

Agnes Blannbekin made a similar claim. According to one of her spiritual advisors, Agnes - a nun from Vienna - was touched very early on by Christ's suffering and bloodshed by undergoing the circumcision and used to weep openly on the subject. Her fascination with the circumcision continued and she began to wonder where exactly the Holy Foreskin was located at. Suddenly, she claimed, a small bit of skin appeared on her tongue, sweet to the taste. She swallowed it down and another bit of skin appeared on her tongue, and so on and so on for roughly 100 times. When she swallowed the foreskin, her entire body was filled with sweetness and joy and revelation was given to her that the foreskin was resurrected on the same day Jesus himself was resurrected.


I will freely admit that I've believed some crazy things in my life, but stuff like this makes me feel relatively normal. The whole history of relics in the Catholic Church is so bizarre that there were actually several churches which claimed to have the holy foreskin of Christ. For more info on the Cult of the Holy Foreskin, see the Wikipedia article Holy Prepuce.
Comments: Read 4 orAdd Your Own.

Monday, January 21st, 2008

Subject:Saint Peter of Argos’s relics returned by Vatican
Posted by:desniza.
Time:9:41 pm.
 
Residents of Argos (Greek: Άργος, Árgos) in the Peloponnese (Greece) on Saturday 19.01.2008 welcomed a delegation of Vatican clerics who returned the relics of their town’s patron saint, missing since the 15th century after a Catholic bishop took them to Rome. The relics were taken to Rome during the occupation of the Peloponnese by the Venetians on 1388-1463. Local churchmen, who began searching for the relics of Saint Peter of Argos in the early 1990s, finally traced them ostensibly kept for centuries in St Mark’s Basilica in Rome. In 1465-70 St Mark’s Basilica was reconstructed by the Pope Paul II, when the inside and the outside of the church were restyled according to the Renaissance taste. In that occasion the church was assigned to the Venetian people living in Rome, Paul II being a Venetian of birth.
Relations between the Orthodox and Catholic churches, frosty for centuries, have improved in recent years, with both sides taking steps toward rapprochement. The Roman Catholic Church decided to relinquish the relics identified with Argos' patron saint following coordinated efforts by Ecumenical Patriarch Vartholomeos and Metropolitan Iakovos of Argolida prefecture. “We had looked everywhere for them,” local Bishop Iakovos said. Thousands of faithful thronged the streets and church bells sounded as the relics were carried into the local cathedral and put on display. 
Comments: Add Your Own.

Saturday, January 19th, 2008

Subject:Who's Who: Launcelot Andrewes
Posted by:slyfoot.
Time:9:29 pm.
Today's Who's Who:

~Andrewes, Launcelot

(1555--1626) Bishop and Devotional Writer. Andrewes was born near London and was educated at the University of Cambridge. He was known as a remarkable preacher and he rose quickly in the Church. In 1601 he became Dean of Westminster, in 1605 Bishop of Chichester, in 1609 Bishop of Ely and in 1619 Bishop of Winchester. He took a full part in the affairs of state, participating in the Hampton Court Conference in 1604, sitting on the Essex divorce suit commission and on the official investigation of the Archbishop of Canterbury's accidental shooting of a gamekeeper. He also accompanied King JAMES I to Scotland in his attempt to make episcopacy acceptable to the Scots. He was one of the translators of the Authorised Version of the Bible, being responsible for most of the Pentateuch and the historical books of the Old Testament. Among his friends were Richard HOOKER and George HERBERT and, later, he was greatly revered by Archbishop William LAUD. His fame, however, rests on his reputation for sanctity and for his inspiring sermons. His Ninety-Six Sermons and his Preces Privatae remain classics of Anglican spirituality.

P. Welsby, Launcelot Andrewes (1958) ; N. Lossky, Launcelot Andrewes the Preacher (1971).

Source: Who's Who in Christianity, Routledge
Comments: Add Your Own.

Monday, January 14th, 2008

Subject:Pope faces the East and the Cross and turns back on congregation in old Mass ritual January 13, 2008
Posted by:desniza.
Time:3:34 pm.
 

Pope Benedict XVI celebrated parts of Sunday's Mass with his face looked up the East and the Cross and his back turned on the congregation, re-introducing an old ritual that had not been used in decades.

The Pope used the Sistine Chapel's ancient altar set right against the wall under Michelangelo's dramatic depiction of the Last Judgment, instead of the altar placed on a mobile platform that allowed his predecessor John Paul II to face the faithful.

A statement by the Vatican's office for liturgical celebrations said it had been decided to use the old altar, where ballots are placed during papal elections, to respect "the beauty and the harmony of this architectonic jewel."

That meant that for the first time in this kind of celebration since the Second Vatican Council (1962-65), the Pope turned his back on the faithful and faced the East and the Cross. He also read his homily from an old wooden throne on the left of the altar used by Pius IX in the 19th century.

The Pontiff is slowly reintroducing some of the old rituals phased out after Vatican II, which substituted Latin for local languages, modernized the Church and encouraged inter-religious dialogue.

In July, the Pope issued a decree allowing wider use of the old Latin Mass, in what was regarded as a nod to Church traditionalists. He has also said he would like the centuries-old Gregorian chant to make a comeback.

During Sunday's mass commemorating the baptism of Jesus Christ, which was celebrated in Italian, the Pope baptized 13 babies, carefully pouring water on their heads from a golden shell.

He spoke about the significance of baptism, which marks the admission of a person in the community of Christians.

Comments: Add Your Own.

Monday, December 24th, 2007

Subject:One more push of desire before it's over! It's never to late to celebrate Advent...
Posted by:efriden.
Time:1:42 am.
Mood: excited.
I know tomorrow is Christmas Eve, the last day of Advent, but I just can't help myself - I gotta post this, because I love it so. It's an Advent-hymn that most of you probably know, in Latin and in an olden English translation. The text is based on the special antiphons, the so called "great O-antiphons", for the Magnificat (praise of Mary) sung during vespers (evening prayer) for the last seven days before Christmas Eve (where the vespers liturgically belong to Christmas Day, naturally). They're rich in OT-imagery, and so are these lyrics. If you haven't heard it, you must check it out, for it is soo beautiful!

Comments: Add Your Own.

Saturday, December 22nd, 2007

Subject:Christmas Message from Jerusalem
Posted by:torbellino.
Time:6:38 pm.
A 2007 Christmas message from the Jerusalem heads of churches, by way of jn1034, can be read here: The Joyous Pan-Christian Witness of Communions in Lockdown


Inna Novikova: Jerusalem Christian Quarter
Comments: Add Your Own.

Friday, December 14th, 2007

Subject:Who's Who: Andrew
Posted by:slyfoot.
Time:8:43 pm.
Today's Who's Who:

~Andrew

(first century) Saint and Apostle. Andrew was the brother of Simon PETER and he earned his living as a fisherman. In the Gospels, he is mentioned in connection with his call to discipleship, in the incident of the feeding of the five thousand, in the episode of the Greeks who wanted to see JESUS and as a listener to Jesus's prophecies about the End. According to EUSEBIUS OF CAESAREA's fourth-century history of the Church, Andrew was later a missionary in Scythia. An even later tradition has it that he was martyred at Patras in Archaia and he is supposed to have been crucified on a diagonal cross. He became the patron saint of Scotland because St Rule, in response to a dream, was supposed to have carried his relics from the place of martyrdom to a new burial spot in Fife.

F. Dvornik, The Idea of Apostolicity and the Legend of the Apostle Andrew (1958) ; P.M. Peterson, Andrew, Brother of Simon Peter (1958).

Source: Who's Who in Christianity, Routledge
Comments: Read 13 orAdd Your Own.

Wednesday, December 5th, 2007

Subject:Who's Who: Anastasia
Posted by:slyfoot.
Time:10:43 am.
Today's Who's Who:

~Anastasia

(c. early fourth century) Saint and Martyr. Anastasia was probably martyred in Sirmium, and her relics were removed to Constantinople. A much later tradition makes her of noble Roman origin and a spiritual disciple of St John CHRYSOSTOM. Despite the paucity of information about her, Anastasia has been venerated in Rome since the fifth century and she is specifically remembered in the Prayer of Consecration in the Roman Mass.

V.L. Kennedy, The Saints of the Canon of the Mass (1938).

Source: Who's Who in Christianity, Routledge
Comments: Read 2 orAdd Your Own.

Friday, November 30th, 2007

Subject:Who's Who: William Ames
Posted by:slyfoot.
Time:9:34 am.
Today's Who's Who:

~Ames, William

(1576--1633) Theologian. A student of William PERKINS at the University of Cambridge, Ames became known as an extreme Calvinist. After living in Colchester, where he was prevented from holding a parish by the Bishop of London, he settled in the Netherlands. There he was an observer at the Synod of Dort and was involved in the condemnation of Arminian theology. In 1622 he was appointed Professor of Theology at Franeker where he was regarded as one of the best theologians in Europe. His works include De Conscien tia eius Jure et Casibus (1632), which was an important contribution to Calvinist moral theology, and Medulla Theologiae, a systematic exposition of Protestant principles.

William Ames, Latin Works, edited by M. Nethenus 5 vols (1658) ; K.L. Sprungen, The Learned Doctor William Ames (1972).

Source: Who's Who in Christianity, Routledge
Comments: Read 4 orAdd Your Own.

Tuesday, November 20th, 2007

Subject:Who's Who: Ambrose
Posted by:slyfoot.
Time:8:27 am.
Today's Who's Who:

~Ambrose

(c. 339--97) Saint and Bishop. Ambrose was born in Trier, Gaul and at first he practised as a lawyer. In about 370, he was appointed governor of the province of Milan and when Bishop AUXENTIUS died, he was invited to be his successor. At this stage Ambrose was not even baptised. After much hesitation he accepted the invitation and was baptised, ordained and consecrated. Unlike Auxentius who was an Arian, Ambrose was strictly orthodox and he became famous as a preacher. St AUGUSTINE, in particular, greatly admired him. He was fearless in his dealings with the secular authorities, imposing penance on the Emperor THEODOSIUS I after a massacre in Thessalonica and declaring that the Emperor was within the Church and not over it. Among his surviving works are De Sac ramentis, which is the earliest witness to the prayer of consecration in the Roman Mass, De Officiis Ministrorum, on Christian ethics, and various letters, hymns and sermons. Some scholars also believe him to have been the author of the Athanasian Creed. Ambrose is counted among the four traditional Doctors of the Latin Church, the others being AUGUSTINE, GREGORY THE GREAT and JEROME.

N. McLynn, Ambrose of Milan (1995) ; D. Williams, Ambrose of Milan (1995).

Source: Who's Who in Christianity, Routledge
Comments: Read 4 orAdd Your Own.

Saturday, November 17th, 2007

Subject:Who's Who: Alphonsus Liguori
Posted by:slyfoot.
Time:8:22 am.
Today's Who's Who:

~Alphonsus Liguori

(1696--1787) Saint, Order Founder and Devotional Writer. Alphonsus was born near Naples and initially practised as a lawyer. At the age of twenty-four, however, he joined a preaching order. In 1726 he was ordained priest and in 1730 he moved to Scala to be near his friend the Bishop of Castellmare. In 1732 he founded the Redemptorists (the Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer). The task of the new order was to perform mission work among the poor. After the Bishop's death, Alphonsus became Superior-General and in 1749 the rule of the order was formally approved by Pope BENEDICT XIV. In 1750 a corresponding house was set up for women. In 1762 Alphonsus was consecrated Bishop of Sant'Agata dei Goti, but he resigned in 1775 to dedicate himself to the affairs of the order. His devotional works include the Annotations (1748), Theologia Moralis (2 volumes, 1753 and 1755), the Great Means of Prayer (1759) and the Way of Salvation (1767). These works were very popular and were in sharp contrast with the sombre theology of the Jansenists. Alphonsus was declared a Doctor of the Church in 1871. His order continues its work to the present time.

A.C. Berthe, Life of Alphonsus Liguori, translated by H. Castle, 2 vols (1905).

Source: Who's Who in Christianity, Routledge
Comments: Read 3 orAdd Your Own.

Thursday, November 8th, 2007

Subject:Who's Who: Alphage
Posted by:slyfoot.
Time:8:29 am.
Today's Who's Who:

~Alphege

(954--1012) Saint, Martyr and Archbishop. Alphege joined a monastic community at Deerhurst in Wessex, England, but spent some time as a hermit. He was consecrated Bishop of Winchester in 984, succeeding ETHELWOLD, and was used by King Ethelred the Unready on a diplomatic mission against the invading Danes in 994. As a result of Alphege's intervention, the Danish leader, Anlaf, became a Christian. In 1005 Alphege was enthroned Archbishop of Canterbury, following AELFRIC. Meanwhile the Danes were overrunning the south of England and in 1011 Alphege was imprisoned at Greenwich. He refused to be ransomed and was eventually killed during the course of a drunken revel when the Danish feasters threw ox bones at him. According to Archbishop ANSELM, just as JOHN THE BAPTIST was a martyr for truth, so Alphege was a martyr for justice. His cult was long celebrated in Canterbury until it was overshadowed by that of Thomas BECKET.

Eadmer, The Life of St Anselm, edited by R.W. Southern (1962) ; R.W. Southern, St Anselm and his Biographer (1963).

Source: Who's Who in Christianity, Routledge
Comments: Read 9 orAdd Your Own.

Monday, November 5th, 2007

Subject:Who's Who
Posted by:slyfoot.
Time:4:35 pm.
Today's Who's Who:

~Allen, Richard

(1760--1831) Denomination Founder. Allen was born a slave and grew up in Delaware in the United States of America. He was converted to Methodism and succeeded in converting his owner and thereby gaining his freedom. Almost entirely self-educated, he was accepted as a Methodist preacher in 1784 and served as an assistant to Bishop ASBURY in his preaching missions. Many African-Americans were attracted to his ministry and in 1787 he formed the Free African Society. In 1794 this became the African Methodist Episcopal Church and it was dedicated by Bishop Asbury. Allen was ordained to the new denomination in 1799 and he became its first Bishop in 1816. Through his determination and industry, the Church had achieved a national standing by the time of his death.

H.D. Gregg, History of the African Methodist Episcopal Church (1980) ; E. Lincoln, The Black Church in the African-American Experience (1990) ; G.A. Singleton (ed.), The Life, Experience and Gospel Labors of the Rt Rev. Richard Allen (1960).

Source: Who's Who in Christianity, Routledge
Comments: Read 3 orAdd Your Own.

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